Child victimization maltreatment bullying and dating violence prevention and intervention
Addressing psychological distress holds the potential to prevent or reduce verbal bullying victimization by improving social functioning. This line of research is vital, as child maltreatment is an important risk factor for bullying victimization. Bisexual females, for example have the highest prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (40.4 %) followed by lesbians (32.1 %), bisexual males (24.5 %), gay males (21.2 %), heterosexual females (16.9 %), and heterosexual males (4.6 %; Friedman et al. Similarly, bisexual females (33.4 %) reported higher rates of childhood physical abuse in comparison to lesbians (31.2 %), bisexual males (24.2 %), gay males (18.5 %), heterosexual females (18.4 %), and heterosexual males (11.4 %; Friedman et al. These findings suggest gender and sexual orientation are potential risk factors for childhood sexual and physical abuse. Scholars have suggested sexuality disclosure to caregivers and gender role non-conformity may increase the risk for child maltreatment for sexual minority youth (Austin et al. Unfortunately, more theory development and research are needed to identify the risk factors unique to a bisexual orientation that might explain their potentially higher rates of child maltreatment.In a nationwide study conducted by the CDC, approximately 20 % of high school students reported being victimized at school and 16 % reported experiencing electronic bullying (Eaton et al. In contrast, the extant literature has consistently found sexual minority youth experience substantially higher rates of verbal (75 to 98 %), relational (76 to 86 %), electronic (55 to 62 %), and physical (22 to 38 %) bullying victimization in comparison to their non-sexual minority peers (Birkett et al. This is consistent with prior research with heterosexual samples indicating girls, in general, are at greater risk for childhood sexual abuse in comparison to boys (Barth et al. Similarly, a bisexual orientation has also been found in previous studies to be a risk factor for bullying victimization, substance misuse, and suicidality (D’Augelli et al. In addition to gender and sexual orientation, race and ethnicity also play a notable role in child maltreatment, with lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women of color reporting higher rates of physical and sexual abuse than their White counterparts (Doll et al.Approximately 46 % of the sample reported moderate to extreme childhood emotional abuse, followed by physical abuse (34 %), sexual abuse (32 %), emotional neglect (28 %), and physical neglect (26 %). Sterzing [email protected] 1 School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, 120 Haviland Hall #7400, Berkeley, CA 94720-7400, USA 2 Wayne State University, Detroit, USA 3 Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea 4 Washington University in St. Louis, USA Child maltreatment is a profound social problem associated with an array of proximal (e.g., child mortality) and distal (e.g., mental health problems) consequences (Gilbert et al. Child maltreatment is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as Bany act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child^ (Leeb et al. For example, victims of childhood sexual abuse, in comparison to non-victims, are approximately 12 times more likely to be revictimized as adolescents (Boney-Mc Coy and Finkelhor 1995).Higher levels of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were associated with more frequent bullying victimization. In a longitudinal, nationally representative study (N = 1467, 2–17 y/o), Finkelhor et al.In these cases, TEACH automatically credits the workshop as noted above.Journ Child Adol Trauma DOI 10.1007/s40653-016-0101-4 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Child Maltreatment and Bullying Victimization Among a Community-Based Sample of Sexual Minority Youth: The Meditating Role of Psychological Distress Paul R. Little research exists that explores psychological distress as a modifiable risk factor connecting these two forms of victimization. For example, adult lesbians report a rate of childhood sexual abuse that is approximately two times higher than heterosexual women (Wilsnack et al. In a meta-analysis conducted by Friedman and colleagues (2011), sexual minority youth were 2.9 times more likely to experience childhood sexual abuse and 1.3 times more likely to experience childhood physical abuse than their heterosexual counterparts (Friedman et al. Child maltreatment substantially increases the risk for multiple forms of revictimization, such as dating violence and sexual assault in adulthood (Widom et al. Although the extant literature has focused primarily on adult experiences of revictimization (Classen et al.Although little research exists with sexual minority youth under 14 years of age (e.g., Floyd and Stein 2002), the extant literature indicates that bullying victimization declines as general adolescent and sexual minority youth enter high school (Finkelhor et al. Pathways Bridging Child Maltreatment and Bullying Victimization Although the relationship between child maltreatment and bullying victimization remains unexamined for sexual minority youth, Hong and colleagues (2012) have called for theoretically-informed research that investigates potential mediators (e.g., emotional dysregulation, depression, anger, and social skills deficits) in the association between child maltreatment and bullying victimization among all adolescents.Prior empirical research indicates a strong link between child maltreatment and psychological distress (Lansford et al.
Two participants withdrew from the study prior to completing the interview, indicating boredom and fatigue as the reasons for withdrawal.
According to attachment theory, child maltreatment leads to the development of an insecure attachment style and an internal working model (i.e., mental representations of attachment figures) of caregivers as unresponsive during times of distress (Cicchetti and Toth 1995).
Insecure attachment styles are associated with the development of mental health problems (e.g., psychological distress, depression, trauma symptomology; Allen et al.
Variables and Measures Bullying Victimization An adapted version of the Swearer Bullying Survey (SBS) was used to measure verbal (α = .85), relational (α = .82), electronic (α = .80), and physical (α = .80) bullying victimization within the last school year (Swearer and Doll 2001).
All measures of internal consistency presented throughout the Variables and Measures subsection were derived from the current study.